‘Supporting Rapid Change and Building Resilience in Supply Chains’ has been written to highlight the emergency response that is required in the wake of COVID-19. The article covers some of the challenges that organisations face, the changing landscape, what to look out for and how to direct resilience programs utilising digital transformation. It is an accessible article with the focus is intended to be on functional process requirements rather than typical concepts of business continuity planning and disaster recovery. In addition, the article highlights managing change, team competences, technology and a brief introduction to the OutSystems Low Code platform that can help deliver the change required to build resilience in process. ISB Global is an OutSystems (and SAP Partner) and has built a range of applications that can be quickly tailored for rapid change or new functions that can be developed using the Low Code platform.
Supporting Rapid Change and Building Resilience in Supply Chains
What Can Help with Rapid Change in the ‘New Normal’?
We now understand how disruption affects the supply chain and the results of not getting products to where they are needed most. What was once fast paced now needs to become deployed in a matter of days to mitigate risk. Digital transformation has already played a significant part in the transition to keeping the public safe while continuing to try and operate a business-as-normal-policy to keep some sort of economic stability.
Banking, everyday health care consultations, retailing, click, collect and delivery, schooling, working, meeting friends and family and even dating, all now online through digital channels, seem to have been catapulted into the normal, instantly dismissing other forms of engagement, forcing an adoption curve rarely seen before. An uptake and prerequisite of digital transformation to meet the needs of emergency response and rapid change.
What Technologies Can Be Deployed to Cope With Disruption and Change?
Now is the time to embrace digital transformation fully. Planning digital initiatives by use case with the impetus from the pandemic for trial, error and experimentation in order to aid efficiency, transparency and visibility. Building resilience in the supply chain to cope with rapid change should be of paramount importance, developing programs to cope with rapid change, serving customers and stakeholders in the new world and post pandemic future.
Development of strategies, programs and new digital initiatives in normal circumstances is often hindered by challenges, financial control, shareholder return, organisational culture, slow customer reactions, agile and collaborative management. The pace of these projects doesn’t often reflect the pace of change necessary for true disruption and digital growth. The stagnation of these types of initiative rarely reflect the type of courageous moves required to invest, innovate, deploy and scale, utilising new technologies for rapid disruption and change.
As companies and stakeholders are forced to act in the pandemic and adopt new ways of working, questions should be asked to what has not been completed to date on the digital transformation path and what could be embraced to ensure the company adopts new technologies to create the efficiency and resilience required to progress from here in an unknown world.
How Easy is it to Adapt to New Technologies That Facilitate Change?
No doubt, there has been some work completed to manage your operations in this time of crisis. At the very least, teams have been put together with a mandate to plan in the disruption, meet and manage and drive an outcome in the company’s continuing activities. This team and stakeholders have also been locked down and working from home, facing their own challenges. The new team and ways of working has had to quickly embrace rapid change to continue work. Moving forward, they can be further aligned to plan, focus and deliver on new technologies that create greater adaptability in dynamic markets.
How Can Teams Focus on Digital Transformation?
The advance in the way that the team works and what new challenges have faced, have had to be quickly overcome to produce the results necessary to keep the business on track. The new process, partnerships and platforms have bucked the challenges faced in traditional projects. Teams have coped and delivered in record time with results. What was the alternative? This impetus now needs to be harnessed to deliver on the company’s digital transformation efforts and utilise new technology to create greater efficiencies in the use case.
Where Should the Digital Transformation Journey Start?
It has long been suggested in strategy and goal setting that you need to go big, bold and out of comfort zone to achieve objectives with scale, monetisation and return. The ‘new normal’ will require extending the core of the company’s operation but firstly you need complete core integrated process coverage of the operation, if this is not in place it would be a good place to start and soon.
Everyone is talking about the ‘new normal’ but what does that mean? Maybe just another phase of rapid transition since the last? If that is the case, how should you cope with disruption and shocks like a pandemic or the next surprise? It doesn’t have to be global, it could just affect the supply chain you are in or indeed your company in a standalone situation. Significant research details that focusing digital transformation efforts on the core of the business will give the best chance of success in the short and long term. The research also suggests that companies embracing AI to help with the large amounts of data collected in dynamic markets are steering their way through the new normal far more effectively than those companies who do not.
What Should Digital Transformation Focus On?
There are several frequent aspects to arise from the ‘new normal’ with research effecting costs and models. Supply chain visibility and flexibility is prevalent and has touched everyone in the last couple of months. A variety of cost-effective analytics solutions can help mitigate risk by understanding weaknesses and ‘what if’ scenarios, moving to predictive models to help with insight from impacts.
Protecting data, whether corporate or privacy regulated, helping to identify gaps and weak spots in data use when investing in vendor products should be thoroughly analysed for investments in efficiency and protection. Remote workforce productivity and automation is another theme, integration creates value by being able to automate in process furthermore, a range of robotic process automation (RPA) applications are becoming widespread to teach, automate and learn frequent, labour intensive tasks in core operations, leaving humans to do what they do best.
How Should Learning Be Embedded into Digital Transformation?
Daring doesn’t mean dumb. Companies that embrace the new normal and digital transformation will find themselves short of talent. However, creativity and perseverance with learning programs and the building of internal knowledge networks geared around innovation will benefit stability, growth and ultimately survival. Key to the proposition is embedding and applying learning as you go.
Having the ability to quickly analyse, identify and learn through the end to end process with the use of analytics will deliver the visibility and therefore flexibility to move and respond rapidly to change in disruptive times.
What Areas of Digital Transformation Need to Be Focused on to Build Resilience?
According to research there are 4 key areas of understanding: Data analysis – Collect and compile objectives of what needs to be understood from the set. Then dictate the frequency of meetings for the analysis and output. Focus on the known weak spots that have been identified, then build use cases to rectify. Understand what is missing, what interactions with human or machine could aid in defining and achieving the objective of strengthening that weak spot.
Obsess on technology. Ramp up knowledge, experimentation and learning in a technology area that is believed to be able to help the known weak spots. As the learning and knowledge gains, so will the reveal on the current landscape of products to support the operation, coupled with the ability to meet the needs of the business moving forward. This should provide a broad understanding of whether the existing and prospective investment will meet the needs of the business and return in the long term. Focus on data security, scalability, user and customer experience.
Interaction. Usability. Experience. (Repeat). Currently, if your digital interaction doesn’t stack up the challenges have had a significant impact on operations, this will be evident from assigning manpower to look after a manual data related task. Moving one stage further, if your customers and suppliers have had to interact with your digital offering it will have no doubt highlighted touch points that have broken. Now is the time to investigate, analyse and learn those areas, build the use case and invest to excel in these areas.
How Do Partnerships and Collaboration Help Build Resilience?
The experimentation that is required ultimately will result in change, this is something to take into consideration. It also requires platform and partner if you do not have the resources internally. Change will result in different ways of working and so the appropriate stakeholders should interact with the process of experimentation, use case development, objective setting, testing, learning and outcomes at an early stage. Collaboration with all is key.
The greater learning capacity that is embedded into the process the more productive the outcome. Often learning outcomes can be focused on a singular point or transaction. In times of rapid change this differs and there can be multiple value outputs from the learning proposition. In times of disruption or rapid change learning programs have to cope with large amounts of change quickly, with multiple outcomes and ways to feedback into the program for adoption and scale. Everything cannot and will not be covered but if the program is planned with objectives and feedback incorporated into the iterative cycle, then the aim can be deployed quickly with scale and what is learnt and can be incorporated next cycle.
What Opportunities Will Be Presented from Building Resilience?
It is also important to appreciate, capture and learn from unknown outputs and opportunities that have not been planned for. Companies that have invested in data capture and analytics tools that can capture multiple and unknown results can quickly analyse the output and investigate whether there is an opportunity. This can also help in being able to quickly analyse and investigate to learn how to make the digital initiative deployment more efficient by anticipating the unknown.
The scenarios and activities listed here of invest, speed, plan, program, experiment, learn, analyse and feedback could have the tendency to add a large amount of complexity and overwhelm if new to the organisation. It is therefore, a good idea not to overwhelm, train on becoming knowledgeable at formulas that work but be mindful of applying resources to ideas that do not and why. The scaled learning can be improved by extending networks to additional stakeholders. There is a willingness and adaptability in times of change, so the opportunity to extend collaboration and learning should be taken and made expansive.
How Will the Pandemic Effect Change?
The aftermath of the pandemic could be the fundamental structural change of new economic order. How should you go about predicting this new and or next normal? It is difficult to say, so what to rely on? The past. Great if you have data and analysis from that time period, additional challenges if not. So how to think constructively about optimising, transforming and preparing your supply chain to be resilient in preparation for future disruption, shock and change…?
Trade and travel have been made incredibly easy in the last decade. Technologies have dramatically reduced the need for travel and data allows supply chains to deliver in a matter of days. However, there have been signs of growing disquiet in more regulation on immigration policies despite the needs of migrating populations.
Could Politics Influence Resilience?
A range of populist rhetoric has sought to differentiate from migrating populations. Since the pandemic struck, nearly every country in the world has imposed travel restrictions. Will the imposed controls and populist politics mean that travel and business trade will lead to continued control over a preference for locally produced goods and services closer to the end market? Champions of circularity would certainly welcome such localisation but less of the negative rhetoric associated with populist politics.
What is the Value of a Resilient Organisation?
So, how to capture these trends and enforced circumstances so that outperformance is delivered. Resilience. Research conducted in the financial crash of 2008 led resilient companies to outperform their competitors by 10% within a year in recovery, while average non-resilient companies’ revenue had reduced on average by 15%. Strong transparent balance sheets, ability to cut operating costs, preparedness and the flexibility-to-action in times of uncertainty were all traits of the companies that succeeded strong recoveries versus competition.
Predictions on COVID-19 are anticipating greater economic damage than the financial crash of 2008. So, rather than adjusting business models, greater change will have to occur to ride out the storm and prepare for the next normal. Supply chains built on just in time inventory will need to evolve to build more robust back up and safety planning. Distributed learning to cope with the disruption and keep on top of technology is also of paramount importance.
Impacts from climate change and the series of natural disasters has seen investors build resilience testing into valuations. The ability of teams to make decisions, along with environmental, social and governance has contributed to the valuation of organisations. Resilience in accompaniment to these forces will compel additional strategic thinking along with the normal of ever reducing costs and increasing efficiency.
How Important is Digital Transformation in the New Normal?
E-commerce’s ever-increasing dominance has seen a monumental rise in online sales in the pandemic period. Sales in Italy, one of the worst hit countries in the disruption, has seen online sales increase by over 80%*. Italy’s strict lockdown no doubt has played a big part. Online healthcare has also seen a dramatic rise and virtual interactions between patient and provider are the new normal, could this type of model open new opportunities for quick, engaged, problem solving solution providers?
Can Automation Help Build a Resilient Company?
Virtual healthcare interaction may not be quite ready for conversational AI but other forms of problem solving where a range of simple diagnosis to resolve problems could well be. This could be integrated to other forms of monitoring technology to provide feedback when asked on the analysis of the problem that was recently encountered, if this is a regular challenge automated answers could be delivered based on recorded learning from the process that led to the problem.
**The McKinsey Global Institute in 2017 estimated that 60% of jobs could see 30% of their key tasks automated, affecting 400-800 million jobs worldwide by 2030. According to the Brookings Institution over the last 3 recessions in 30 years automation has increased after each. If human contact has to be minimised what does this mean for automation opportunities? To consider these opportunities alongside alignment of building environmental, social and governance value will help increase efficiency and decrease costs while building strategic resilience in operations.
As of mid-April the fiscal stimulus package introduced by the G20 is in excess of $10 trillion. This spending is directed in three areas, citizen’s basic needs, job preservation and helping business in the short term. There is a range of fiscal help in countries according to immediate demographic requirements from cash transfers, welfare benefits, furlough schemes, suspension of loan and payments and cutting rates. How will this economic policy affect resilience?
Will Resilience, like ESG Become Policy & Law?
This means additional loans, nationalisation, equity share and greater regulation. Global public health markets could be redefined providing more alignment, collaboration and interaction for future disruption. The sheer cost of support may motivate governments to future-shock-proof business by ensuring resiliency. Enforced policy of resilience could be executed from the predicted challenges that climate change will also have on the economy in the next decade. Understanding policy and prospective interventions, technology implementation, resilience, social, environmental and governance valuation could lead to significant opportunities. Government economic intervention is a feverish topic but to anticipate how this may change business operations in the next decade could deliver the advantage.
Will Societal Perception Have an Impact on Resilience?
After the financial crash of 2008 there was a perception that many financial institutions were to blame for the event. There is already discussion on fiscal policy and tax increases, so how will a prospective tax increase effect consumer’s perception this time? What will consumers demand from the inflow of capital and how it is utilised? The probability is social, environmental and forms of governance in community focused policies. How will this focus impact stakeholders outlook on business in general? And what will business do to align their empathy with stakeholders?
How Will Analysis of Stakeholders Help a Resilient Company?
Shareholder value is not the only recognised value, there is a direction toward other priorities, employee investment, community support and ethical supplier relationships. People, profit and planet is the ‘now normal’ as is socially responsible investment funds. If the taxpayer has more involvement with business, the business is focused on these forces (including customer experience) and the government is focused on the business, will the analysis be far more meticulous? Caveat Venditor.
Business needs to be resilient along with the new normal forces. If the business’ supply chain is overwhelmed at this time how can it continue post COVID-19 with continuity of supply and speed to market? The desire to live more healthy lifestyles, especially the ethical food consumption and how food gets from ‘farm to fork’, including packaging are more ‘now normals’. Integration with consumer and data sharing with food and packaging habits could lead to enhanced information and greater intelligence on social, environmental, health and personal protection in a post COVID world.
Will Uncertainty Lead to Greater Collaboration?
As an example, consider the uncertainty on consumer habits, including travel, tourism and hospitality are very difficult to predict post COVID-19. Traditionally these industries involve close proximity to others, so will consumers decide to forgo these luxuries and opt for different leisure activities instead? What type of affect will this have on closely linked actors in the supply loop? Will these sectors still operate the same models or will they be required to shift there offering in response to changing demands. Couple radical change in behaviours, economic uncertainty, and the need to rework business models, leads to systems support for business that must be quick, ready for change and able to meet the needs of customers whatever the outcome.
There have been visible collaborations throughout FMCG in the last decade to simply diversify brand. In the new normal organisations can learn from this collaboration to reposition, creating unique offerings, collaborating with supply loop partners with the support of digital platforms to enhance service, create opportunities with new values and utilise forces in environment, social and governance spheres. Establishing speed, visibility and flexibility. Nurture talent, focus on technology, data management, interaction, experience and usability. Digitising and extending core.
How Can Change Speed the Building of Resilience?
“What, then, is the true gospel of consistency? Change…” (Mark Twain). As everyone must change there can be some positive actions to take into consideration. Communication is still an imperative to action, quick connection is the new normal and remote collaboration has facilitated change at speed. This change has been flexible and inclusive, offering a platform for new, robust relationships to be cultivated throughout all stakeholders (As well as a subtle opportunity for showing your intellectual might by the contents of your bookshelf). There is also an increased understanding if change is enforced how teams can move with agility and deliver. The pandemic has created a mandatory environment in which to force workplace innovation, with the ability to create efficiencies and workarounds, simply, effectively, quickly, deploying at scale.
What Platform Can Be Used to Deliver Change and Resilience?
Organisations are realising the abilities and functions of low code development platforms. Additionally, low code platforms can provide greater efficiencies when coding, avoiding typical project challenges like managing waterfall phases and the effort associated with the correct deployment of code in applications, like coding debt.
Low code platforms offer agility that companies require to complete innovation cycles quickly, extending digital core or offering cost effective methods to adapt legacy systems with positive impacts on learning, talent and resources, indeed it can be complimentary to these strategies. The increased velocity of deployment utilising low code in bi-modal architectures can deliver enhanced customer experience, speed collaboration and realise objectives all with a positive effect on profitability for the organisation.
The revolution of low code platforms allows for the advance of mission critical systems, delivering a seamless integration environment. Deliver reliability, security and scalability, with best practice architecture, process and sound technical governance. Low code platforms also aid in addressing learning, talent and skills challenges, allowing the business to have grater input and impact on technical delivery. While allowing competent developers to focus on key aspects of development such as process, experience and integration, rather than character specific accuracy. Subsequently delivering projects faster, more accurately, with increased collaboration and superior outcomes.
What Are the Key Benefits of Low Code?
Positive impact throughout the business can be overwhelming. There are references that state after deploying the OutSystems low code platform companies have doubled their development speed, producing new apps in approximately 40% less time than in traditional coding environments. Including apps focused on mission critical applications in supply chain, sales and marketing. Workforce management, HR, finance and manufacturing, which are processes focused on the digital core of the business.
- More efficient development processes, reducing both the time and expense of development.
- Faster time-to-market for internal and customer-facing systems and tools.
- Increased innovation, allowing organisations to capitalise on creativity and respond faster to changing business and customer demands.
- Fewer technology problems through more consistent adherence to standards and security requirements.
The value of OutSystems low code becomes clear in digital transformation, as described below. Many companies are already in digital transformation or are planning it. However, a huge amount of companies fail to achieve their digital transformation goals. One of the most common objectives is to enhance customer experience to increase business growth. The following details, how low code makes development, faster, more secure and robust. How low code benefits development teams. And how to adopt low code and get the best from it.
OutSystems customer research has identified that consumers require interaction with any kind of organisation in numerous ways very easily, irrespective of device or platform. Both consumers and business users are used to software updates that facilitate this interaction. Companies that do not lower and optimise their release cycles run the risk of getting left behind with their customer experience goals.
How Does Low Code Make Development Faster, Secure & More Robust?
In OutSystems low code, software can be created by visual representation. Large sections of code do not require to be written from the beginning. In comparison to traditional ‘waterfall’ coding environments, low code ensures rapid deployment and refinement of apps, which has an impact on speed of implementation, cost and experience.
In the OutSystems low code environment development takes place by utilising a drag and drop interface to assemble existing functional process. All components can be reused by different applications and made available throughout different processes. This accelerates development, delivers consistent experience and technical continuity throughout the evolutionary process of design, development, realisation and use.
Software, web applications and mobile apps can be automatically generated, incorporate best practices and security safeguards. This helps variations in coding practice, security and architecture expertise, which are areas of proficiency in their own right. This process supports consistency as code base is constantly maintained, modified and extended, while being faster and less prone to errors.
Companies are turning to low code to extend the life of legacy systems, which have become the foundation of the business and can be costly and disruptive to change. Low code can be utilised to update and extended the functionality of the legacy application while adapting user interface for increasing customer experience.
Additions can be made to legacy systems however, you can just be adding another legacy application with questionable integration, eventually there are so many add-ons you can add on, maintaining this landscape is very difficult.
New development, release, use, experience and updates can be difficult to attain with older code and applications. This approach can become increasingly expensive too, as scarcity of resource and knowledge in these areas drives up the cost. A modular update by parallel build in low code gives the speed, financial and experience advantages required for the digitally transforming organisation.
Low code is particularly well suited to transactional processes, capturing, entering, interacting and retrieving data for display, irrespective of device. Also, low code suits outsourcing very well than traditional coding due to the speed of development, best practice, security and continuity that the environment delivers. Another aspect and benefit of speeding delivery of apps delivered in low code.
How Does Low Code Benefit Developers?
Some developers have viewed low code as a threat, however, low code enhances traditional development coding and can benefit in quality and speed, saving coding time by automating everyday tasks by utilising the drag and drop interface to design tasks.
Designing out labour intensive coding – By using the drag and drop interface repetitive coding tasks can be eradicated, increasing speed, accuracy, deployment, refinement and leaving developers to work on enhancing the process rather than manual, repetitive tasks that can often go wrong.
Development & developers are faster – Developers can develop faster with low code tools, achieve greater productivity with less training giving the whole team greater time to focus on architecture and solving the business problem rather than individual coding components. Helping growth, experience, collaboration and resource shortages.
Fewer problems, faster results – Generated code within the OutSystems framework adheres to standards within the architecture, fewer errors exists, resulting in less workarounds, faster output and better applications in comparison to less modular code base.
Enhanced work and motivation – Low code allows developers to build faster with fewer defects, speeding release cycles, increased productivity, innovation and experimentation, interest and initiative.
Advancing Learning – Developing in low code can free up time to investigate new technologies like Artificial Intelligence to incorporate into coding activities, creating greater efficiencies.
No more siloes – Traditional development environments can create siloes within project teams with lack of input, unclear requirements and objectives. Low code environments foster collaboration with business, consulting and development, the result is far more inclusive with better outcomes for all stakeholders.
How Does Low Code Benefit All Business Stakeholders?
Siloes within teams prevent digital transformation and can stifle innovation. Software engineering is fundamentally about creating and building applications that help people. Yet, traditionally developers have worked in isolation from the business, detached from goals, needs an opportunities. This does not need to be the case with Low Code environments.
Low code can enhance no code digital transformation environments. Often supporting non-technical development staff or business users, sometimes known as ‘citizen developers’. This enhancement and extension of the team allows for acute problems in use cases to have a greater focus on the business quickly solving problems within a collaborative environment. Simplifying work, creating accuracy and greater efficiencies for the process transformation.
OutSystems research shows 44% of low code users are business users. Collaborating with IT can empower users through upskilling having a direct effect on the process accountability those users have within the business. These relationships should be nurtured and cultivated to ensure that there is always a focus on teams, innovation, training, learning and the focus on the challenge at hand.
How Does Low Code Power Resilience & Digital Transformation?
Advanced teams can develop on Low Code focusing on enterprise level projects. However, when first embarking on digital transformation exercises many newly formed teams can focus on smaller challenges, quicker and easier to implement which have big wins.
The OutSystems low code platform has proven effect on redesigning user interface, altering workflow, capturing data, enabling automation and involving stakeholders to enhance experience within a transactional process. This helps gain further momentum for subsequent projects, building something quickly that works and solving a problem instantly, often replacing or enhancing existing processes in legacy applications.
Fundamental challenges arise in IT when the department cannot support the business. This holds the organisation back, makes digital transformation difficult and doesn’t allow for competent and swift reaction to customer experience and demands. With Low Code these challenges can be met and extend the ability to surpass business objectives. Business leaders and developers can now achieve the goals of the organisation. External vendors and consultants can help the development and realise greater strategic capabilities.
Summary – Supporting Rapid Change & Building Resilience in Supply Chains
It is abundantly evident the effect that a pandemic has on everything. The world has been severely disrupted and as an aftershock, we still wait the true nature of the economic impact, which is now starting to become apparent. Governments around the world start to implement further monetary, fiscal and customised economic packages according to country nuances that mitigate risk. How will this additional change have an impact on operations? One thing is certain, everyone is looking to advanced digital technologies to solve problems, build back smarter and building back greener. The technology adoption curve has just become steeper as more companies invest and implement.
It is now time to invest in technology and partnerships. To aid and enhance supply chain relationships, which have a drastic increase in efficiency, transparency and visibility. Organisations have had no choice but to ‘leap and learn’, embrace the unknown, embed dynamic learning and adopt new technologies and new ways of working to ensure readiness and risk mitigation for the next challenge, companies have realised that they have had to move and get on with the change. It is now time to fully embrace rapid change, to lock into a program of digital transformation.
The impetus is now, the teams are ready and primed and to date, have already delivered in record time and with great results. Start by digitising core, keep it simple, focused and small, build on the experiences incrementally, forge partnerships with external stakeholders to help develop and deliver on the program. Focus on building visibility into your operations, ensuring building resilience ready for the new normal, as we have all been witness, speed is key.
Learning should be part of the program, building of internal knowledge, focusing on weaknesses by innovation with the ability to collect, identify and analyse data. Become obsessive on new technologies and how they can help enhance all aspects of the business. Concentrate on security, scalability, monetisation and experience. Eradicate manual process and duplication, set goals for full automation.
Work with experimentation, embody change. Build cycles, learn from mistakes and create opportunities. Extend the program to all stakeholders, keep things simple and keep them going. Focus on the data you have or the data you can build to be able to predict and cope what will happen next. Build flexibility. Build better. You will be building value into your operation.
Look toward general trends, what opportunities are presented and how can they be incorporated into operations, stakeholder analysis, community interaction and customer experience. The current and future uncertainty can be leveraged, look back, what is known, understand how to lead and improve. Implement. Learn.
Deliver change, deliver better. Low code is set to grow exponentially. Low Code has the ability to deliver the change that you need and enhance systems to combine the strategic objectives the business has to modernise and to digitally transform. Low code allows for rapid innovation cycles. Collaborate with all stakeholders. Integrate, build reliability and scalability, deliver on goals and delight by customer experience.
Low code is more efficient, reduces time and cost. It is quicker to deploy applications. Deliver change, create and respond to customer and business demands. Focus on goals, fixate on your customer, deliver digital transformation and ensure resilience.
Using Digital Technology to Rapidly Recover from Operational Interruptions – MIT Sloan Executive Education
The OODA loop was a tool developed by military strategist John Boyd to explain how individuals and organisations can win in uncertain and chaotic environments. It is an Acronym that explains the four steps of decisions making: Observe, Orient, Decide Act.
Source: *McKinsey – “Digital Strategy in a Time of Crisis” Source: **McKinsey – “The future is not what it used to be: Thoughts on the shape of the next normal” Source: CIO Dive OutSystems Low Code Development eBook